Influence of external factors on cannabis

External factors such as light duration, oxygen, and harvest time (floral maturity) have been shown to influence the secondary metabolite production in cannabis (Liu et al. ; Namdar et al. ).


Light and Temperature


A 4-year study by Lindholst () found that cannabinoid stability is affected by temperature, light, and air. Three conditions were used to store cannabis resin (hashish slabs) and extract (by the solvent): room temperature and 4 °C both with visible light exposure and darkness, and − 20 °C in darkness. The study identified that in cannabis resin, light exposure can affect the decarboxylation of THCA and the degradation of THC. This is evident as the half-life increased by 40% in darkness. However, it was observed that light was only partially influential. The resin samples that were placed at room temperature, in either light or dark settings, only exhibited little differences in the degradation of neutral THC. The dense color and structure of resin are thought to be the reason behind the reduced light sensitivity of THC. Accordingly, it is suspected that the exposure of light on resin only reaches the cannabinoids on the surface resulting in low degradation levels. This theory is further illustrated when a comparison was done between the degradation levels of both acidic and neutral THC levels in cannabis resin and cannabis extract. It was observed that both the neutral and acidic forms of THC in the cannabis extract degraded significantly more through light exposure. Furthermore, compared to resin, cannabis extract had a 10 times lower half-life (35 days for extract and 330 days for resin), while THCA decreased to nondetectable levels after 140 days. The neutral forms, in the extract, increased during this period, although THC concentrations were reduced to 1.7% after 2 years at room temperature with light exposure. It was also found that extracts stored at 4 °C showed the same pattern, but degradation was slower, while at − 20 °C all measured cannabinoids remained unchanged during the study period (Lindholst ). Danziger and Bernstein (, ) evaluated the effect of light on three chemovars of cannabis under four different light conditions.


Blue light and red light


In this study, light as the key factor affected the profile and yield of cannabis chemovars. To be precise, using blue to red lights (1:1 and 1:4 ratios) had the highest yield compared to white LED light. In addition, CBGA as a primary cannabinoid and precursor for many cannabinoids increased by using blue light (Danziger and Bernstein ).


Architectural manipulation of the plant


The same authors in another study investigated the effect of architectural manipulation of the plant on the cannabinoid’s standardization. Defoliation, removing primary and secondary branches, and pruning have been considered as a part of eight various architectural manipulation treatments in different light intensities. Results showed that plant architectural modulation affects cannabinoid profile while no changes has been reported in the decarboxylation of cannabinoids (Danziger and Bernstein ).


Nitrogen supply


Saloner and Bernstein () evaluated the effect of nitrogen supply as an environmental factor on cannabinoids and terpenes. Results showed that the concentration of THCA and CBDA decreases by increasing the amount of nitrogen 69% and 63%, respectively.


Effect of common minerals


Bernstein et al. () evaluated the effect of common minerals on the cannabinoid profile by adding humic acid (HA), phosphor (P), nitrogen (N), and potassium (K) to the commercial treatment into irrigation solution for a high THC cannabis chemovar. Each of the supplements affected the cannabinoid concentrations differently based on the organ and its location in the plant. For example, adding NPK supplement increased 71% the amount of CBG in the flower, while it decreased the amount of CBN in the flowers and leaves by 38% and 36%, respectively (Bernstein et al. ).

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