Design procedures for solid-liquid extractors – PDF Book Download

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Solid-liquid extraction is a unit operation aiming at the selective removal of soluble
components from a solid matrix in a solvent phase. Many synonimus names for this
process are used in the literature, such as leaching, washing and lixiviation. Sometimes
these names are used in relation to the mechanism that is responsible for the solute
transfer. This mechanism can be simple washing of adhering liquid from the surface of a
solid matrix. This occurs for example in the first stage of the extraction of oil from flaked
soybean, after the cells containing the oil have been broken in the pretreatment stage. In
other mechanisms, solute diffuses through a permeable barrier. In the extraction of sugar
from sugar-beet, the cell walls are deliberately kept intact to prevent the transfer of
colloidal components. Some examples of solid-liquid extraction processes relevant to
food industry are given in Table 1. The examples in this table show that for most of the
important applications the liquid extract is the major product stream from an extraction
plant. When the process is directed towards the removal of undesirable trace components,
the solid phase is the important product. In some cases, both the solid and liquid stream
are subjected to further processing. In the extraction of oil from soybean for example,
the upgrading of the extracted solids is of paramount importance for the economy of the


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