Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design of production systems. The Industrial Engineer analyzes and specifies integrated components of people, machines, and facilities to create efficient and effective systems that produce goods and services beneficial to mankind.
Production system is a system in which there are some inputs and some transformation processes gives required output.
It helps to know problem and control good product and similar heart monitoring.
Improving is going through better work environment to reach higher productivity with better quality for the achievement of the scheduled plane. Improving is the elimination of Non-Value Added Tasks.
Productivity is a measure of how much input is required to produce a given output i.e. output/input is called productivity.
Time require making setting
Time require to complete operation
The majority of mineral deposits like iron ore, manganese, copper, bauxite etc. are concentrated in eastern India (e.g. Chota Nagpur plateau)
DC stands for delivery challan which the transporter submits to consignee at the time of delivery of material and gets acknowledgment.
Organization can be termed as distributing functions of a business to a qualified personnel to get the best output. Organization should be built around functions rather than individuals. In the past and to a large extent today, the majority of progressive concerns are organized on a line-and-staff basis. There are two types of organization:
- A line organization comprises those individuals, groups, and supervising employees concerned directly with the productive operation of the business. The paths of authority are clearly defined, as each individual has but one superior from whom he or she obtains orders and instructions.
- A staff organization involves personnel, departments, or activities that assist the line supervisor in any advisory, service, coordination, or control capacity. It should be noted that a staff position is a full-time job and is essentially the work of a specialist.
Following principles should be kept in mind to build an effective organization:
- Clear separation of the various functions of the business should be established to avoid overlap or conflict in the accomplishment of tasks or in the issuance of reception of orders.
- Each managerial position should have a definite location within the organization, with a written job specification.
- There should be a clear distinction between line and staff operation and control.
- A clear understanding of the authority under each position should prevail.
- Selection of all personnel should be based on unbiased techniques.
- A recognized line of authority should prevail from the top of the organization to the bottom, with an equally clear line of responsibility from the bottom to the top.
Which Two Groups Of Management Manages The Control Organization And What Are Their Responsibilities?The two groups of management control of organization is the responsibility of two groups of management:
- Administrative management: It has the responsibility for determining policy and coordinating sales, finance, production, and distribution.
- Production management: It has the responsibility for executing the policies established by administration.
Process analysis is a procedure for studying all productive and nonproductive operations for the purpose of optimizing cost, quality, throughput time, and production output. These four criteria are not mutually exclusive and they are not necessarily negatively correlated. High quality with few if any rejects can result in high production output with low throughput time and cost. All four of these criteria need to be addressed if a facility is going to be a world competitor producing a quality product. In applying process analysis to an existing plant producing a product line, the procedure is first to acquire all information related to the volume of the work that will be directed to the process under study, namely, the expected volume of business, the chance of repeat business, the life of the job, the chance for design changes, and the labor content of the job. This will determine the time and effort to be devoted toward improving the existing process or planning a new process.
Requirements of a good organization are mentioned below:
- responsibilities should be clearly defined and coupled with corresponding authority;
- a change in responsibility be made only after a definite understanding exists to that effect by all persons concerned;
- Definite orders to an employee should be from one source
- orders not be given to subordinates over the head of another executive;
- Any criticism made should be made privately and for the betterment of the employee
- promotions, wage changes, and disciplinary action always be approved by the executive immediately superior to the one directly responsible;
Process planning consists of selecting the best process, which can be used in the most advantageous way, selecting the specific tricks, fixtures, etc. to be used, and specifying the locating points of the special tools and the speeds, feeds, and depths of cut to be employed. The two different types of processes are mentioned below:
- Basic Processes The first processes used in the sequence that leads to the finished design.
- Secondary Processes: operations that are required to transform the general form created by the basic process to product specifications.
For a good process to work smoothly, a proper layout is required. The main purpose of a plant layout should be low handling cost and low throughput time. There are two types of plant layout:
- Product or straight-line layouts: In this, minimization of flow from one operation to next for any product class as machinery is located.
- Process, or functional, arrangements: It is the grouping of similar facilities.
The major disadvantages of product grouping are:
- Employee discontent can easily be picked as a broad variety of occupations are represented in a small area.
- The problem of finding competent supervisors is increased due to the variety of facilities and jobs to be supervised.
- Initial investment is more as duplicate service lines such as air, water, gas, oil, and power lines are required.
The main objective of total quality control is to provide defect free products in 100 percent of the time to meet the complete needs of the customer. It involves all the members in an organization who can affect the quality of the output – a product or service. ISO 9000 is a world standard for quality, it is a quality assurance management system, which is divided into four divisions on the basis of its technical standards:
- ISO 9001 covers procedures from purchasing to service of the sold product.
- ISO 9002 targets towards standards related to processes and the assignment of subcontractors.
- ISO 9003 It is applied to final inspection and test.
- ISO 9004 It is applied to quality management systems.
Matching of servers, which is provided to randomly arriving customers or services, which takes random amount of time, are the problems involved with Queuing theory. It is also known as waiting-line theory. Typical type of problems involved is, people (or customers or parts) arrive at a server (or machine) and wait in line (in a queue) until service is rendered. There may be one or more servers.
It is a form of incentive in which each participating worker receives a periodic bonus in addition to a regular pay only when the company earns a profit. A minimum profit is usually set aside for a return on invested capital, and beyond this amount, a percentage of profits goes into a pool to be shared by the employees. To protect the workers against adverse developments outside their control, some plans give the workers a bonus whenever the actual payroll dollars are less than the normal amount expected for a given volume of production.
The purposes of cost accounting require classifications of costs so that they are recognized: • by the nature of the item (a natural classification)
- in their relation to the product
- with respect to the accounting period to which they apply
- in their tendency to vary with volume or activity
- in their relation to departments
- for control and analysis
- for planning and decision-making.
There are two methods for calculating the cost:
- Job-Order Cost Method: This method is used when orders are placed in the factory for specific jobs or lots of product, which can be identified through all manufacturing processes, a job cost system is appropriate.
- Process Cost Method: This product is used when production proceeds in a continuous flow, when units of product are not separately identifiable, and when there are no specific jobs or lots of product, a process cost system is appropriate.
Departmental classification is required for:
- the segregation of different processes of production
- securing the smoothest possible flow of production
- establishing lines of responsibility for control over production and costs
To achieve the objective three managerial functions should be kept in mind:
- Planning and setting objectives: It is a basic function of the management process. Without planning, there is no need to organize or control. However, planning must precede doing, and the budget is the most important planning tool of an enterprise.
- Organizing: It is essentially the establishment of the framework within which the required activities are to be performed, together with a list of who should perform them. Creation of an organization requires the establishment of organizational or functional units generally known as departments, divisions, sections, floors, branches, etc.
- Controlling: is the process or procedure by which management ensures operative performance, which corresponds with plans.
Various uses of time standards are:
- Wage incentive plans and plant layout
- Plant capacity studies and production planning and control
- Standard costs and budgetary control
- Cost reduction activities and product design
- Tool design and top-management controls
- Equipment selection and bidding for new business
- Machine loading and effective labor utilization
- Material-handling studies
Autofacturing is a production system that is comprised primarily of automated equipment which is configured as several integrated subsystems, using one common database and computer controls to make, test and transport specifically designed products at high and uniform quality levels meeting flexible specifications with a minimum of human effort. There are many levels of autofacturing from individual cells, all the way up to a complete and integrated system. Most situations are somewhere in between, but progressing toward a total system.
Psychomotor behavior is the activity of receiving sensory input signals and interpreting and physically responding to them. Humans can receive inputs by vision, hearing, smell, and the cutaneous senses, which respond to temperature, mechanical energy, or electrical energy. Kinesthesis and the vestibular sense inform about location and position. Vision followed by hearing are the most important senses for transmitting signals carrying complex information for decisions and for control of MMSs. Signals for warning or alerting need not be complex and can be transmitted by one or a combination of the sensory channels. The choice is determined by the situation and the task being performed by the person or persons to be warned rather than by differences in modality reaction times.
Productivity can be defined as the measure of the amount of input required to produce a given output or it can be also be defined as the ratio of output to input, whereas production system can be explained as a system in which a few inputs are given to get the required output through some transformation processes.
Industrial Engineering is an engineering of design of production systems. An Industrial Engineer analyzes and designs the whole system to integrate the components of people, machines, and facilities to create efficient and effective systems, which produce goods and beneficial services to humanity. Statistics are important to analyze the problem and controlling it for the good production.
Environmental Controls Systems and equipment required for air and water pollution abatement generally carry increased fuel and maintenance labor and materials costs. Reductions in plant output resulting from the higher condensing pressures associated with cooling-tower operation or the added auxiliary power for stack gas clean-up systems lower plant efficiency and increase fuel consumption.
- Application of past experience. The time required to do the operation in the past, either recorded or remembered, may be used as the present standard or as a basis for estimating a standard for a similar operation or the same operation being done under changed conditions.
- Direct observation and measurement. The operation may be observed and its time recorded as it is actually performed and adjustments may be made to allow for the estimated pace rate of the operator and for special allowances.
- Synthetic techniques. A time standard for an actual or proposed operation may be constructed from the sum of the times to perform its several components. The times of the components are extracted from standard charts, tables, graphs, and formulas in manuals or in computer databases and totaled to arrive at the overall time for the entire operation.
Virtual corporation is used to identify those combinations of business and industry where technology is used to execute a wide array of temporary alliances in order to grasp specific market opportunities. With business becoming more complex and global, it is highly likely there will be more partnerships emerging among companies and entrepreneurs.
Improvements can be made by:
- simplifying the design through reduction of the number of parts,
- reducing the number of operations required to produce the design,
- reducing the length of travel in the manufacture of the design, and
- utilizing a better material in design.
It can be done by following below mentioned points:
- reduction of time spent in picking up material
- maximum use of mechanical handling equipment
- better use of existing handling facilities
- greater care in the handling of materials.
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